BLENDING AND CONCEPTUAL INTEGRATION

Blending and Conceptual Integration

Books and Dissertations | Journals | Conferences, Symposia, Lecture Series
Articles and Talks | Handouts | Other Links
 

The Riddle of the Buddhist Monk: A Buddhist monk begins at dawn one day walking up a mountain, reaches the top at sunset, meditates at the top overnight until, at dawn, he begins to walk back to the foot of the mountain, which he reaches at sunset. Make no assumptions about his starting or stopping or about his pace during the trips. Riddle: is there a place on the path that the monk occupies at the same hour of the day on the two trips? Click for the full answer.


image of Mark Turner, Gilles Fauconnier, Confucius

Discourse with Confucius
on the occasion of the founding of the
Chinese Cognitive Linguistics Association
Nanjing, May, 2006

NEW

  • Benjamin W. Dreyfus, Ayush Gupta, Edward F. Redish. 2014. "Applying Conceptual Blending to Model Coordinated Use of Multiple Ontological Metaphors." International Journal of Science Education. "We we use Fauconnier and Turner's conceptual blending framework to demonstrate that experts and novices can successfully blend the substance and location ontologies into a coherent mental model in order to reason about energy. Our data come from classroom recordings of a physics professor teaching a physics course for the life sciences, and from an interview with an undergraduate student in that course. We analyze these data using predicate analysis and gesture analysis, looking at verbal utterances, gestures, and the interaction between them. This analysis yields evidence that the speakers are blending the substance and location ontologies into a single blended mental space."
  • The COINVENT Project, funded under the Future and Emerging Technologies programme within the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme: "In COINVENT we aim to develop a computationally feasible, cognitively-inspired formal model of concept creation, drawing on Fauconnier and Turner's theory of conceptual blending, and grounding it on a sound mathematical theory of concepts."  Further particulars.
  • Stamenković, Dušan. “Animated Visual Stimuli in Blending: Solving The Riddle of the Buddhist Monk.” This experiment tests whether animated visual stimuli can facilitate the understanding of The Riddle of the Buddhist Monk, a well-known example of a conceptual blend previously analyzed by Fauconnier and Turner (1998: 136– 141).
  • Budelmann, Felix & Pauline LeVen. 2014. "Timotheus’ Poetics of Blending: A Cognitive Approach to the Language of the New Music." Classical Philology, Vol. 109, No. 3 (July 2014), pp. 191-210. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/676284. "We believe that an elegant and economical framework for capturing what we shall call Timotheus' poetics of blending . . . is provided by the theory of blending. . . . While rhetorical terms make it look as if the poet is deploying a whole toolkit of unconnected figures of speech, blending terminology brings out the coherence of his poetic program. Viewed as blends, the various images appear as instantiations of essentially the same mental process, which is repeated over and over again, each image reinforcing and developing the effect of those that went before. Blending provides a more economical way of describing Timotheus’ images, and one that does him more justice. Timotheus’ poetics is, systematically, one of blending."
  • Yang, Fanpei Gloria, Kailyn Bradley, Madiha Huq, Dai-lin Wu, Daniel C. Krawczyk. 2013. "Contextual effects on conceptual blending in metaphors: An event-related potential study." Journal of Neurolinguistics. 03/2013; 26(2):312-326. DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroling.2012.10.004. "The results suggest that the demands of conceptual reanalysis are associated with conceptual mapping and incongruity in both literal and metaphorical language, which supports the position of blending theory that there is a shared mechanism for both metaphoric and literal language comprehension."
  • Piata, Anna. 2013. "Conventionality and Creativity in the Conceptualization of Time in Modern Greek: Metaphors and Blends in Language and Literature." Ph.D. dissertation. University of Athens.
  • Pagán Cánovas, C. & Teuscher, U. 2013. "Much more than money: Conceptual integration and the materialization of time in Michael Ende's Momo and the social sciences." Pragmatics & Cognition 20:3. 546-569. DOI: 10.1075/pc.20.3.05pag
  • Auchlin, Antoine. 2013. "Prosodic iconicity and experiential blending." In Hancil, Sylvie and Daniel Hirst (eds.), Prosody and Iconicity . Pages. 1–32. "In order to account for prosodic iconicity in speech in a very general way we propose looking at the phenomenon from an experiential and embodied perspective (Núñez 1999; Violi 2003; Rohrer 2007, i.a.), defining communication as a “co-experienciation” process. Using different paths, prosodic dimensions’ variations impose direct, non-mediated shaping of shared experience. Prosodic iconic formations take place in that space of shared experience. The way it mixes with meaning may be schematized using Fauconnier and Turner’s Conceptual Blending Theory. We suggest (following Hutchins 2005; Bache 2005) some accommodation of the schema in order to take into account the perceptual dimension of part of the blending input, as well as the experiential dimension of blending output."
  • Fan-Pei Gloria Yang, Kailyn Bradley, Madiha Huq, Dai-Lin Wu, Daniel C. Krawczyk. 2013. "Contextual effects on conceptual blending in metaphors: An event-related potential study." Journal of Neurolinguistics. Volume 26, Issue 2, March 2013, Pages 312–326. "The results suggest that the demands of conceptual reanalysis are associated with conceptual mapping and incongruity in both literal and metaphorical language, which supports the position of blending theory that there is a shared mechanism for both metaphoric and literal language comprehension."
  • Harbus, Antonina. 2012. Cognitive Approaches to Old English Poetry. D. S. Brewer. [Chapter 3 is called “Conceptual Blending.” “The creation and processing of metaphor is one instance of what has become known as 'conceptual blending.' . . . This theory is probably the most important concept to cross over from Cognitive Science to Literary Studies.”]
  • Pagán Cánovas, C. & Jensen, M. 2013. Anchoring Time-Space Mappings and their Emotions: The Timeline Blend in Poetic Metaphors. Language and Literature 22:1. 45-59. DOI: 10.1177/ 0963947012469751
  • Coulson, S. & Pagán Cánovas, C. Forthcoming (accepted in 2011). Understanding Timelines: Conceptual Metaphor and Conceptual Integration. Cognitive Semiotics.
  • Johnson, Robert. "A Conceptual Integration Analysis of Multiple Instructional Metaphors." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. "The researcher concluded not only that the conceptual integration model could be used as a guide to improve teaching practices; if the conceptual integration model could account more robustly or subtly for cognitive elements of teaching and learning, it also could be used to refine the language used in the creation and interpretation of assessments, leading to improved validity and reliability at any level of assessment, from teacher-developed classroom assessments to large-scale standardized assessments."
  • Harrell, D. Fox. In press. Phantasmal Media: An Approach to Imagination, Computation, and Expression. MIT Press. ["An argument that the expressive power of computational media relies on the construction of phantasms—blends of cultural ideas and sensory imagination."]
  • Barbara Dancygier. 2012. The Language of Stories: A Cognitive Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cánovas, Cristóbal Pagán. 2011. "The Genesis of the Arrows of Love: Diachronic Conceptual Integration in Greek Mythology." American Journal of Philology 132(4): 553-579. | DOI: 10.1353/ajp.2011.0044.
  • Roy, Jean-Pierre. 2011. L'analyse organisationnelle à l'heure des sciences cognitives: De la métaphore anthropologique fictionnelle à l'intégration conceptuelle. Éditions universitaires européennes.
  • Winter, Steven. 2012. Frame Semantics and the 'Internal Point of View,' Current Legal Issues Colloquium: Law and Language (Michael Freeman & Fiona Smith eds.) Oxford University Press. (forthcoming Sept. 2012). [Frame blending in conceptions of the law.]
  • Worth, Aaron. “’Thinketh: Browning and Other Minds,” Victorian Poetry 50:2, pp.127-146 (Summer 2012) http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_poetry/v050/50.2.worth.html
  • Worth, Aaron. “Arthur Machen and the Horrors of Deep History,” Victorian Literature and Culture / Volume 40 / Issue 01, pp 215 - 227. This essay uses blending theory to illuminate the emergence of such conceptual categories as prehistory, deep time, and what Daniel Lord Smail has termed “deep history.”
  • Alexander, James.  2011. Blending in mathematicsSemiotica. Volume 2011, Issue 187, Pages 1-48, ISSN (Online) 1613-3692, ISSN (Print) 0037-1998, DOI: 10.1515/semi.2011.063
  • Delbecque, Nicole & Maldonado, Ricardo. 2011. Spanish ya: A conceptual pragmatic anchor. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (2011) 73–98. ["The basic idea is that ya is a blend that instantiates a dynamic progression over a programmatic base."]
  • Thagard, Paul & Stewart, Terrence C. 2011. The AHA! Experience: Creativity Through Emergent Binding in Neural Networks. Cognitive Science 35, 1, 1-33. ["Our account of creativity as based on representation combination is similar to the idea of blending (conceptual integration) developed by Fauconnier and Turner (2002), which is modeled computationally by Pereira (2007). Our account differs in providing a neural mechanism for combining multimodal representations, including emotional reactions."]
  • Blending Media: Defining Film in the Modernist Period.
  • Cook, Amy. 2010. Shakespearean Neuroplay: Reinvigorating the Study of Dramatic Texts and Performance through Cognitive Science. Palgrave Macmillan. ["rereads William Shakespeare's Hamlet using the cognitive linguistic theory of 'conceptual blending' to articulate a new methodology of interdisciplinary study."]
  • Dancygier, Barbara. 2009. "Genitives and proper names in constructional blends." In Evans, Vyvyan & Stéphanie Pourcel, editors, New Directions in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009, pages 161-184.
  • Rubba, Johanna. 2009. "The dream as blend in David Lynch's Muholland Drive." In Evans, Vyvyan & Stéphanie Pourcel, editors, New Directions in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009, pages 465-498.
  • Pascual, Esther. 2009. "'I was in that room!': Conceptual integration of content and context in a writer's vs. a prosecutor's description of a murder." In Evans, Vyvyan & Stéphanie Pourcel, editors, New Directions in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009, pages 499-516.
  • Fauconnier, Gilles. 2009. "Generalized integration networks." In Evans, Vyvyan & Stéphanie Pourcel, editors, New Directions in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009, pages 147-160.
  • Bing, T.J. & Redish, E.F. (2007). The cognitive blending of mathematics and physics knowledge. In Proceeding of the Physics Education Research Conference. Syracuse, NY. AIP Conf. Proc.
  • Lundhaug, Hugo. 2007. Cognitive Poetics and Ancient Texts. "We may use the framework of Blending Theory to model any kind of interpretation, including the interpretation of texts, ancient and modern alike."
  • Nieuwland, Mante S. and Van Berkum, Jos J. A. 2006. When Peanuts Fall in Love: N400 Evidence for the Power of Discourse. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 7: 1098–1111. ["This process of projecting human properties (behavior, emotions, appearance) onto an inanimate object comes close to what has been called ‘conceptual blending,’ the ability to invent new concepts and to assemble new and dynamic mental patterns by ‘blending’ elements and vital relations from diverse scenarios (e.g., Fauconnier & Turner, 2002)."]
  • Howell, Tes. 2010. Conceptual Blends and Critical Awareness in Teaching Cultural Narratives. L2, 2(1): 73-88.
  • Pagán Cánovas, C. 2010. “Conceptual Blending Theory and the History of Emotions.'
  • Pagán Cánovas, C. 2010. “Erotic Emissions in Greek Poetry: A Generic Integration Network." To appear in Cognitive Semiotics.
  • Turner, Mark. 2010. "Blending Box Experiments, Build 1.0."
  • Fenton, Brandon . 2008. Character and Concept: How Conceptual Blending Constrains Situationism. VDM Verlag.
  • Special Interest Pages: Blending and Culture
  • Aparta, Krystian. Conventional Models of Time and Their Extensions in Science Fiction.
  • Copland, Sarah. 2008. "Reading in the Blend: Collaborative Conceptual Blending in the Silent Traveller Narratives." Narrative, volume 16, number 2, pages 140-162.
  • da Silva, Maurício. Presentation of blending in Brazilian Portugese.
  • Fauconnier, Gilles & Mark Turner. 2009. "The Origin of Language as a Product of the Evolution of Double-Scope Blending." Commentary, Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
  • Fauconnier, Gilles & Turner, Mark. "The Origin of Language as a Product of the Evolution of Modern Cognition." 2008. In Laks, Bernard, etl al., editors, Origin and Evolution of Languages: Approaches, Models, Paradigms. London: Equinox. Pdf of draft.
  • Fauconnier, Gilles & Turner, Mark. "Rethinking Metaphor". 2008. Ray Gibbs, editor, Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 53-66. Working Paper PDF.
  • Oakley, Todd & Anders Hougaard, editors. 2008. Mental Spaces Approaches to Discourse and Interaction. John Benjamins. [Follow the link for a list of papers on blending.]



 





During the Upper Paleolithic, human beings developed an unprecedented ability to innovate. They acquired a modern human imagination, which gave them the ability to invent new concepts and to assemble new and dynamic mental patterns. The results of this change were awesome: human beings developed art, science, religion, culture, refined tool use, and language. Our ancestors gained this superiority through the evolution of the mental capacity for conceptual blending. Conceptual blending has a fascinating dynamics and a crucial role in how we think and live. It operates largely behind the scenes. Almost invisibly to consciousness, it choreographs vast networks of conceptual meaning, yielding cognitive products, which, at the conscious level, appear simple. Blending is a process of conceptual mapping and integration that pervades human thought. A mental space is a small conceptual packet assembled for purposes of thought and action. A mental space network connects an array of mental spaces. A conceptual integration network is a mental space network that contains one or more "blended mental spaces." A blended mental space is an integrated space that receives input projections from other mental spaces in the network and develops emergent structure not available from the inputs. Blending operates under a set of constitutive principles and a set of governing principles. The theory of conceptual blending has been applied in cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, linguistics, music theory, poetics, mathematics, divinity, semiotics, theory of art, psychotherapy, artificial intelligence, political science, discourse analysis, philosophy, anthropology, and the study of gesture and of material culture.

 





Books






Brandt, Line. 2013. The Communicative Mind: A Linguistic Exploration of Conceptual Integration and Meaning Construction. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Chow, Kenny K. N. 2013. Animation, Embodiment, and Digital Media: Human Experience of Technological Liveliness. Palgrave Macmillan.

Cook, Amy. 2010. Shakespearean Neuroplay: Reinvigorating the Study of Dramatic Texts and Performance through Cognitive Science. Palgrave Macmillan. ["rereads William Shakespeare's Hamlet using the cognitive linguistic theory of 'conceptual blending' to articulate a new methodology of interdisciplinary study."]

Coulson, Seana. 2001. Semantic Leaps: Frame-shifting and Conceptual Blending in Meaning Construction. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Excerpt

Coulson, Seana and Todd Oakley, editors. In Preparation. Conceptual Blending: Representation, Principles, Processes. Amsterdam: John H. Benjamins.

Dancygier, Barbara. 2012. The Language of Stories: A Cognitive Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dancygier, Barbara & Eve Sweetser. 2014. Figurative Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fauconnier, Gilles and Turner, Mark . 2002.
The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. Basic Books.

Fauconnier and Turner. 2000. Amalgami: Introduzione ai Network di integrazione concettuale. Urbino: Quattroventi. [Italian version of "Conceptual Integration Networks." Tr. Marco Casonato, Antonino Carcione, and Michele Procacci. A volume in the series Neuroscienze cognitive e psicoterapia.]

Fenton, Brandon . 2008. Character and Concept: How Conceptual Blending Constrains Situationism. VDM Verlag.

Fauconnier, Gilles . 1997. "Blends." Chapter 6 of Mappings in Thought and Language. Cambridge University Press.

Harbus, Antonina. 2012.Cognitive Approaches to Old English Poetry. D. S. Brewer. [Chapter 3 is called “Conceptual Blending.” “The creation and processing of metaphor is one instance of what has become known as 'conceptual blending'. . . . This theory is probably the most important concept to cross over from Cognitive Science to Literary Studies . . .”]

Harrell, D. Fox. In press. Phantasmal Media: An Approach to Imagination, Computation, and Expression. MIT Press. ["An argument that the expressive power of computational media relies on the construction of phantasms—blends of cultural ideas and sensory imagination."]

Imaz, Manuel and David Benyon. 2007. Designing with Blends: Conceptual Foundations of Human-Computer Interaction and Software Engineering. MIT Press.

Liddell, Scott, K. 2003. Grammar, Gesture, and Meaning in American Sign Language. Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, George and Rafael Núñez. 2000. Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being. Basic Books.

Oakley, Todd & Anders Hougaard, editors. 2008. Mental Spaces Approaches to Discourse and Interaction. John Benjamins.

Pascual, Esther. 2002. Imaginary Trialogues: Conceptual Blending and Fictive Interaction in Criminal Courts. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Landelijke Onderzoekschool Taalwetenschap.

Pereira, Francisco Câmara. 2007. Creativity and Artificial Intelligence: A Conceptual Blending Approach. Mouton De Gruyter.

Roy, Jean-Pierre. 2011. L'analyse organisationnelle à l'heure des sciences cognitives: De la métaphore anthropologique fictionnelle à l'intégration conceptuelle. Éditions universitaires européennes.

Slingerland, Edward. 2008. What Science Offers the Humanities: Integrating Body and Culture. NY: Oxford University Press.

Sørensen, Jesper. 2006. A Cognitive Theory of Magic. Altamira Press. (Cognitive Science of Religion Series)

Turner, Mark . 1996. "Creative Blends" and "Many Spaces." Chapters 5 and 6 of The Literary Mind: The Origins of Thought and Language.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Turner, Mark. 2001. Cognitive Dimensions of Social Science: The Way We Think About Politics, Economics, Law, and Society. Oxford University Press.

Turner, Mark, editor. October, 2006. The Artful Mind: Cognitive Science and the Riddle of Human Creativity. Oxford University Press.

Turner, Mark. January, 2014. The Origin of Ideas: Blending, Creativity, and the Human Spark. New York: Oxford University Press.

Zbikowski, Lawrence. 2001. Conceptualizing Music: Cognitive Structure, Theory, and Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dissertations

Coulson, Seana. 1997. "Semantic Leaps: The role of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in meaning construction." Ph.D. dissertation, UC San Diego.

Cámara, Pereira, Francisco. A Computational Model of Creativity. Ph.D. thesis. (pdf). (From the introduction to the thesis: "This is the first computational approach to Conceptual Blending [Fauconnier and Turner] that includes all the fundamental aspects of this framework.")

Desagulier, Guillaume. 2005. A Cognitive Model of Variation and Language Change Based on an Examination of Some Emerging Constructions in Contemporary English. Thèse de Doctorat. Université de Bordeaux 3. Abstract. Dissertation.

Hougaard, Anders. 2005. "How're we doing: An Interactional Approach to Cognitive Processes of Online Meaning Construction." "The dissertation presents a new approach to online mental space construction and blending."

Mandelblit, Nili. 1997. "Grammatical Blending: Creative and Schematic Aspects in Sentence Processing and Translation." Ph.D. dissertation, UC San Diego.

Oakley, Todd . 1995. "Ghost-brother" [and related chapters] in "Presence: the conceptual basis of rhetorical effect." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland. "Ghost-brother" was presented at the Fifth International Conference on the Cognitive Science of Natural Language Processing, Dublin, 1996.

Williams, Robert. F. 2004. Making meaning from a clock: Material artifacts and conceptual blending in time-telling instruction. UCSD Dissertation. "Examines the image schemas, conceptual mappings, and blends involved in time-telling and how these get constructed during time-telling instruction, including the important role of gesture in mapping conceptual elements to material anchors. Other chapters discuss the evolution of time-telling and examine sources of error and changes in conceptual understanding."


Special issue of
Language and Literature 2006, volume 15,
number 1

Edited by
Barbara Dancygier

  1. Barbara Dancygier. What can blending do for you?
    2006 15: 5-15.
  2. Mark Turner. Compression and representation.
    2006 15: 17-27.
  3. Eve Sweetser. Whose rhyme is whose reason? Sound and sense in Cyrano de Bergerac. 2006 15: 29-54.
  4. Elena Semino. Blending and characters’ mental functioning in Virginia Woolf's ‘Lappin and Lapinova’. 2006 15: 55-72.
  5. Vera Tobin. Ways of reading Sherlock Holmes: the entrenchment of discourse blends. 2006 15: 73-90.
  6. Sean McAlister. ‘The explosive devices of memory’: trauma and the construction of identity in narrative. 2006 15: 91-106.
  7. Margaret H. Freeman. Blending: A Response. 2006 15: 107-117.

Special issue of the
Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 37, Issue 10, (October 2005) on Conceptual Blending Theory
edited by
Seana Coulson and Todd Oakley

  1. Introduction.
    Seana Coulson and Todd Oakley.
  2. Blending and coded meaning: Literal and figurative meaning in cognitive semantics.
    Seana Coulson and Todd Oakley
  3. Blending out of the background: Play, props and staging in the material world. Chris Sinha.
  4. Material anchors for conceptual blends.
    Edwin Hutchins.
  5. Mental spaces and cognitive semantics: A critical comment. Per Aage Brandt
  6. Primary metaphors as inputs to conceptual integration.
    Joseph Grady.
  7. Constraining conceptual integration theory: Levels of blending and disintegration.
    Carl Bache.
  8. Blending and polarization: Cognition under pressure.
    Peter Harder.
  9. Conceptual disintegration and blending in interactional sequences: A discussion of new phenomena, processes vs. products, and methodology.
    Anders Hougaard.
  10. Mimesis, artistic inspiration and the blends we live by.
    Tim Rohrer.
  11. Creating mathematical infinities: Metaphor, blending, and the beauty of transfinite cardinals.
    Rafael E. Núñez.

  • Special issue of
    Cognitive Linguistics
    11:3-4 (2000) on
    Conceptual Blending

    edited by
    Seana Coulson and Todd Oakley


    .

    1. Coulson, Seana and Todd Oakley. "Blending basics." Pages 175-196.
    2. Mandelblit, Nili. "The grammatical marking of conceptual integration: From syntax to morphology." pages 197-252.
    3. Veale, Tony and Diarmuid O'Donoghue. "Computation and blending." Pages 253-282.
    4. Fauconnier, Gilles and Mark Turner. "Compression and global insight." Pages 283-304.
    5. Sweetser, Eve. "Blended spaces and performativity." Pages 305-334.
    6. Grady, Joseph. "Cognitive mechanisms of conceptual integration." Pages 335-346.
    7. Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr. "Making good psychology out of blending theory." Pages 347-358.


    Conferences, Symposia, Lecture Series


    Articles and talks

    • Alexander, James. 2008. "Mathematical Blending ." Draft pdf.
    • Birgisson, Bergsveinn. 2012. "Blends Out of Joint: Blending Theory and Aesthetic Conventions." Metaphor and Symbol 27(4), 283-298.
    • Bizup, Joseph. "Blending in Ruskin."
    • Brandt, Line & Per Aage Brandt. 2005. "Making sense of a blend:A cognitive-semiotic approach to metaphor." Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 3, pp. 216-249.
    • Brandt, Line & Per Aage Brandt. 2005. "Cognitive Poetics and Imagery." European Journal of English Studies, volume 9, number, pages 117-130.
    • Brandt, Per Aage. In press. "Cats in Space." Acta Linguistica. [Jakobson and Lévi-Strauss' structuralist reading of Baudelaire's "Les Chats" is reconsidered in light of cognitive rhetoric and conceptual blending theory.]
    • Bundgård, Peer F. 1999. "Cognition and Eventstructure," Almen Semiotik 15: 78-106. [A review of conceptual integration theory.]
    • Burke, Michael. 2003. "Literature as Parable." In Cognitive Poetics in Practice, eds. Gavins, J. & Steen G. London: Routledge, pages 115-128.
    • Cánovas, Cristóbal Pagán. 2011. "The Genesis of the Arrows of Love: Diachronic Conceptual Integration in Greek Mythology." American Journal of Philology 132(4): 553-579. | DOI: 10.1353/ajp.2011.0044.
    • Casonato, Marco M.. 2000. "Scolarette sexy: processi cognitivi standard nella scena della perversione." Psicoterapia: clinica, epistemologia, ricerca, 20-21, Spring. [An analysis of the role of blending in sexual imagination and realized fantasy, including but not restricted to "perverse" scenes.]
    • Casonato, Marco, Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner. "L’immaginazione ed il cosiddetto 'conflitto' psichico." Annuario di Itinerari Filosofici, volume 5 (Strutture dell'esperienza), number 3 (Mente, linguaggio, espressione). Milano: Mimesis, 2001.
    • Chen, Melinda. 2000. "A Cognitive-Linguistic View of Linguistic (Human) Objectification." A discussion of blends in objectifying human beings.
    • Cienki, Alan and Deanne Swan. 1999. "Constructions, Blending, and Metaphors: Integrating Multiple Meanings." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Collier, David and Stephen Levitsky. 1997. "Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research." World Politics 49:3 (April), 430-451.
    • Copland, Sarah. 2008. "Reading in the Blend: Collaborative Conceptual Blending in the Silent Traveller Narratives." Narrative, volume 16, number 2, pages 140-162.
    • Coulson, Seana. 1995. "Analogic and metaphoric mapping in blended spaces" Center for Research in Language Newsletter, 9, 1: 2-12.
    • Coulson, Seana. "Conceptual Integration and Discourse Irony." Beyond Babel: 18th Annual Conference of the Western Humanities Alliance. San Diego, October 1999.
    • Coulson, Seana and Gilles Fauconnier. 1999. Fake Guns and Stone Lions: Conceptual Blending and Privative Adjectives.  In B. Fox, D. Jurafsky, & L. Michaelis (Eds.) Cognition and Function in Language.  Palo Alto, CA: CSLI.
    • Coulson, Seana and Van Petten, C. 2002. "Conceptual integration and metaphor: an event-related potential study."
      Memory and Cognition, 30 (6) (2002), pp. 958–968. "Consistent with conceptual blending theory, the results suggest that the demands of conceptual integration affect the difficulty of both literal and metaphorical language."
    • Csabi, Szilvia. 1997. "The Concept of America in the Puritan Mind." Paper to be presented at the 5th Conference of the International Cognitive Linguistics Association, Amsterdam, July 14-19, 1997.
    • Delbecque, Nicole & Maldonado, Ricardo. 2011. Spanish ya: A conceptual pragmatic anchor. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (2011) 73–98. ["The basic idea is that ya is a blend that instantiates a dynamic progression over a programmatic base."]
    • Dudis, Paul, G. 2004. Body partitioning and real-space blends. Cognitive Linguistics 15:2, 223- 238.
    • Evans, Vyvyan. (Website) 1999. "The Cognitive Model for Time." Beyond Babel: 18th Annual Conference of the Western Humanities Alliance. San Diego, October.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles. 2001. "Conceptual blending and analogy." In Gentner, Dedre, Keith Holyoak, and Boicho Kokinov, editors. 2001. The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Pages 255-286.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles. 1999. "Embodied Integration." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles. 2000. "Methods and Generalizations." In T. Janssen and G. Redeker, editors, Cognitive Linguistics: Foundations, Scope, and Methodology. The Hague: Mouton De Gruyter. Pages 95-127. [Cognitive Linguistics Research Series]
    • Fauconnier, Gilles. 2000. "Conceptual Integration and Analogy." In Gentner, D., Holyoak, K. J., & Kokinov, B. N., editors, The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles. 2005. Compression and Emergent Structure. In S. Huang, ed. Language and Linguistics. 6.4:523-538.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles. 2003. Compressions de Relations Vitales dans les Réseaux d'Intégration Conceptuelle. In Jean-Louis Aroui, editor. Le Sens et la Mesure. Paris: Honoré Champion.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles& Mark Turner. "The Origin of Language as a Product of the Evolution of Double-Scope Blending." In press. Commentary, Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles and Mark Turner. In press for May 2008. "The Origin of Language as a Product of the Evolution of Modern Cognition," in Laks, Bernard, etl al., editors, Origin and Evolution of Languages: Approaches, Models, Paradigms. London: Equinox. Pdf of draft.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles & Mark Turner. 2008. "Rethinking Metaphor". Ray Gibbs, editor, Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pages 53-66. CSN version.
    • Fauconnier, Gilles and Turner, Mark . 1994. "Conceptual Projection and Middle Spaces." UCSD Department of Cognitive Science Technical Report 9401. CSN version.
    • Fauconnier and Turner. 1996. "Blending as a Central Process of Grammar" in Conceptual Structure, Discourse, and Language. Edited by Adele Goldberg. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), 113-130 [distributed by Cambridge University Press]. Expanded CSN version.. [A Polish translation appears in Jezykoznawstwo kognitywne II: Zjawiska pragmatyczne (Cognitive Linguistics II: Pragmatic Phenomena). Edited by Wojciech Kubinski and Danuta Stanulewicz. Gdansk, Poland: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdanskiego (University of Gdansk Press), 2000.]
    • Fauconnier and Turner. 1998. "Principles of Conceptual Integration." Discourse and Cognition. Edited by Jean-Pierre Koenig. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), 269-283 [distributed by Cambridge University Press].
    • Fauconnier and Turner. 1999. "Metonymy and Conceptual Integration." In Metonymy in Language and Thought. Edited by Klaus-Uwe Panther and Günter Radden. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pages 77-90. [A volume in the series Human Cognitive Processing].
    • Fauconnier and Turner. 2003. "Polysemy and Conceptual Blending." In Polysemy: Flexible Patterns of Meaning in Mind and Language. Edited by Brigitte Nerlich, Vimala Herman, Zazie Todd, and David Clarke. John Benjamins. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pages 79-94. A volume in the series Trends in Linguistics.
    • Fauconnier and Turner. "Compression and Global Insight." Cognitive Linguistics. 11:3-4 (2000). Pages 283-304
    • Fauconnier, Gilles and Turner, Mark . 1998. "Conceptual Integration Networks." Cognitive Science. Volume 22, number 2 (April-June 1998), pages 133-187. Expanded CSN version. [original article] [A Danish translation by Martin Skov, "Konceptuelle integreringsnetværk," appears in Kognitiv semiotik, edited by Peer F. Bundgård, Jesper Egholm, and Martin Skov (Copenhagen: Haase & Søns, 2003).]
    • Fludernik, Monika, Donald Freeman, and Margaret Freeman. 1999. "Metaphor and Beyond: An Introduction." Poetics Today. 20:3, 383-396.
    • Forceville, Charles. "Blends and metaphors in multimodal representations." 7th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, July 2001.
    • Freeman, Donald. 1999. "'Speak of me as I am': The Blended Space of Shakespeare's Othello." Beyond Babel: 18th Annual Conference of the Western Humanities Alliance. San Diego, October.
    • Freeman, Margaret. 2008. “Reading Readers Reading a Poem: From Conceptual to Cognitive Integration.” Cognitive Semiotics, 2.
    • Freeman, Margaret. 1997. "'Mak[ing] new stock from the salt': Poetic Metaphor as Conceptual Blend in Sylvia Plath's 'The Applicant'."
    • Freeman, Margaret. 1997. "Grounded spaces: Deictic -self anaphors in the poetry of Emily Dickinson," Language and Literature, 6:1, 7-28. [Contains a blended space analysis of Dickinson's "Me from Myself - to banish -"]
    • Freeman, Margaret. 1999. "The Role of Blending in an Empirical Study of Literary Analysis." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Freeman, Margaret. 1999. "Sound Echoing Sense: The Evocation of Emotion through Sound in Conceptual Mapping Integration of Cognitive Processes." Beyond Babel: 18th Annual Conference of the Western Humanities Alliance. Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. San Diego, October.
    • Goguen, Joseph. 1999. "An Introduction to Algebraic Semiotics, with Application to User Interface Design." In Computation for Metaphor, Analogy, and Agents. Edited by Chrystopher Nehaniv. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pages 242-291. A volume in the series Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. ["This paper introduces a new approach to user interface design and other areas, called algebraic semiotics. . . . One important mode of composition is blending . . .; we relate this to certain concepts from the very abstract area of mathematics called category theory."]
    • Several papers by Joseph Gogen and his lab, at Computational Narratology:

      - "Style as Choice of Blending Principles," by Joseph Goguen and Fox Harrell.

      - "Foundations for Active Multimedia Narrative: Semiotic spaces and structural blending," by Joseph Goguen and Fox Harrell.

      - "Steps towards a Design Theory for Virtual Worlds," by Joseph Goguen.

      - "Semiotic Morphisms, Representations, and Blending for User Interface Design," by Joseph Goguen..
       
      - "Information Visualization and Semiotic Morphisms," by Joseph Goguen and Fox Harrell.

      - "An Introduction to Algebraic Semiotics, with Applications to User Interface Design," by Joseph Goguen.
    • Grady, Joseph., Todd Oakley, and Seana Coulson. 1999. "Conceptual Blending and Metaphor." In Metaphor in cognitive linguistics, edited by Steen, G., & Gibbs, R. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    • Gréa, M. Philippe. "La théorie de l’intégration conceptuelle appliquée à la métaphore et la métaphore filée." Dissertation.
    • Grush, Rick and Nili Mandelblit. 1997. "Blending in language, conceptual structure, and the cerebral cortex." pdf version.The Roman Jakobson Centennial Symposium: International Journal of Linguistics Acta Linguistica Hafniensia Volume 29:221-237. Per Aage Brandt, Frans Gregersen, Frederik Stjernfelt, and Martin Skov, editors. C.A. Reitzel: Copenhagen.
    • Grygiel, Marcin. 2004. “Semantic change as a process of conceptual blending.” In F. J. Ruiz de Mendoza, editor, Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics 2, 285-304, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benja.mins Publishing Company.
    • Hart, F. Elizabeth. 2006. "The View of Where We've Been and Where We'd Like to Go." College Literature 33.1. 225-37. [“Fauconnier and Turner's theory of cognitive blending will be the aspect of cognitive linguistics that has the most lasting impact on literary studies.”]
    • Hart, Christopher. 2007. "Critical Discourse Analysis and Conceptualilsation: Mental Spaces, Blended Spaces, and Discourse Spaces in the British National Party." In Hart, Christopher and Dominik Lukes, editors. Cognitive Linguistics in Critical Discourse Analysis: Application and Theory. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    • Hart, F. Elizabeth. 2006. “The View of Where We've Been and Where We'd Like to Go.” College Literature 33.1 (2006), 225-37. [“Fauconnier and Turner's theory of conceptual blending will be the aspect of cognitive linguistics that has the most lasting impact on literary studies.”]
    • Herman, Vimala . 1999. "Deictic Projection and Conceptual Blending in Epistolarity." Poetics Today. 20:3, 523-542.
    • Hiles, John. 2003. "Integrated Asymmetric Goal Organization (IAGO): A Multiagent Model of Conceptual Blending." White Paper, Naval Postgraduate School.
    • Hiraga, Masako . 1999. "Blending and an interpretation of Haiku." Poetics Today. 20:3, 461-482.
    • Hiraga, Masako. 1999. "Rough Sea and the Milky Way: 'Blending' in a Haiku Text." In Computation for Metaphor, Analogy, and Agents. Edited by Chrystopher Nehaniv. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pages 27-36. A volume in the series Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence.
    • Hiraga, Masako . 1998. "Metaphor-Icon Links in Poetic Texts: A Cognitive Approach to Iconicity." The Journal of the University of the Air 16. ["The model of 'blending' . . . provides an effective instrument to clarify the complexity of the metaphor-icon link."]
    • Hofstadter, Douglas .1999. "Human Cognition as a Blur of Analogy and Blending." Beyond Babel: 18th Annual Conference of the Western Humanities Alliance. San Diego, October. [Hofstadter discusses frame blends and "frame blurs" in Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies and Le Ton beau de Marot, both published by Basic Books. Douglas Hofstadter and David Moser analyze formal blending in "To Err is Human: To Study Error-Making is Cognitive Science." Michigan Quarterly Review, 28:2 (Spring 1989) 185-215. Hofstadter deals in some detail with these topics in unpublished manuscripts.]
    • Holder, Barbara. 1999. "Blending and your bank account: Conceptual blending in ATM design." Newsletter of the Center for Research in Language 11:6.
    • Holder, Barbara and Seana Coulson. 2000. "Hints on How to Drink from a Fire Hose: Conceptual Blending in the Wild Blue Yonder." Fifth Conference on Conceptual Structure, Discourse, and Language. Santa Barbara, May 11-14.
    • Howell, Tes. 2010. Conceptual Blends and Critical Awareness in Teaching Cultural Narratives. L2, 2(1): 73-88.
    • Howell, Tes. (2007) "Two Cognitive Approaches to Humorous Narratives." in New Approaches to the Linguistics of Humor. Diana Popa and Salvatore Attardo, eds. Galati: Editura Academica.
    • Jappy, Tony. 1999. "Blends, metaphor, and the medium." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Kiang, Michael. 2005. "Conceptual blending theory and psychiatry." Cognitive Science Online, volume 3.1, pages 13-24. pdf version.
    • Kim, Esther. 2000. "Analogy as Discourse Process." Includes discussion of blending in discourse.
    • Krauss, Kristin. 2005. "Tacit Design Issues Regarding the Use of Visual Aesthetics for Web Page Design." Alternation 12, 2, pages 92-131. ["conceptual blending explains how multi-disciplinary projects such as web page design take shape"]
    • Lakoff, George and Rafael E. Núñez. 1997. "The Metaphorical Structure of Mathematics: Sketching Out Cognitive Foundations For a Mind-Based Mathematics." In Lyn English, editor, Mathematical Reasoning: Analogies,Metaphors, and Images. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Analyzes blending in the invention of various mathematical structures.
    • Lee, Mark and John Barnden. 2000. "Metaphor, Pretence, and Counterfactuals." Includes discussion of blending in counterfactuals. Fifth Conference on Conceptual Structure, Discourse, and Language. Santa Barbara, May 11-14.
    • Liddell, Scott K. 1998. "Grounded blends, gestures, and conceptual shifts." Cognitive Linguistics, 9.
    • Liddell, Scott K. 2000. Blended spaces and deixis in sign language discourse. In David McNeill, editor, Language and gesture. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 331-357.
    • Maglio, Paul P. and Teenie Matlock. 1999. "The Conceptual Structure of Information Space" in Munro, A., Benyon, D., and Hook, K., editors, Personal and Social Navigation of Information Space. Springer-Verlag. [Includes a section, "Conceptual Blends in Information Space."]
    • Maldonado, Ricardo. 1999. "Spanish Causatives and the Blend." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Mandelblit, Nili. 1996. "Formal and Conceptual Blending in the Hebrew Verbal System: A Cognitive Basis For Morphological Verbal Pattern Alternations." Unpublished manuscript.
    • Mandelblit, Nili. 1995. "Beyond Lexical Semantics: Mapping and Blending of Conceptual and Linguistic Structures in Machine Translation." In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Cognitive Science of Natural Language Processing, Dublin, 1995.
    • Mandelblit, Nili & Gilles Fauconnier. 2000. "Underspecificity in Grammatical Blends as a Source for Constructional Ambiguity." In A. Foolen and F. van der Leek, editors, Constructions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    • Nikiforidou, Kiki. 2005. "Conceptual blending and the interpretation of relatives: A case study from Greek." Cognitive Linguistics 16­1, 169­206.
    • Oakley, Todd. 1998. "Conceptual blending, narrative discourse, and rhetoric." Cognitive Linguistics, 9-: 321-360.
    • Oakley, Todd. "Blending and Implied Narratives."
    • Olive, Esther Pascual. "Why bother to ask rhetorical questions (if they are already answered)?: A conceptual blending account of argumentation in legal settings." 7th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, July 2001.
    • Parrill, Fey & Eve Sweetser. 2004. What we mean by meaning. Gesture 4:2, 197-219.
    • Pereira, Francisco Cámara and Amílcar Cardoso. Conceptual Blending and the Quest for the Holy Creative Process.
    • Ramey, Lauri. 2002. "The Theology of the Lyric Tradition in African American Spirituals." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 70:2 (Oxford University Press, June 2002), 347-363. This article demonstrates how the slaves were able to achieve a high level of conceptual freedom and spiritual self-determination in the spirituals as a liberating response to the constraints of their existence through the use of creative blends.
    • Ramey, Lauri. 2008. Slave Songs and the Birth of African American Poetry. Palgrave Macmillan. [Includes blending analyses of several songs and poems.]
    • Ramey, Lauri. 2005. "'It Noh Funny': Humor in Contemporary Black British Poetry." MLA (Washington, D.C.) To bepublished in Dictionary of Literary Biography: Contemporary Black British Writers, ed. R. Victoria Arana (Bruccoli, Clark, Layman Publishers, 2007).
    • Ramey, Lauri. 1996. "The Poetics of Resistance: A Critical Introduction to Michael Palmer." University of Chicago, Ph.D. dissertation. [See especially chapter four.]
    • Ramey, Lauri. 1998. "'His Story's Impossible to Read': Creative Blends in Michael Palmer's Books Against Understanding." Twentieth Century Literature Conference. University of Louisville. Louisville, Kentucky, February 1998.
    • Ramey, Lauri. 1997. "A Film Is/Is Not A Novel: Blended Spaces in Sense and Sensibility." Popular Culture Association/American Culture Association in the South Conference. Columbia, South Carolina, October 1997.
    • Ramey, Lauri. 1997. "What n'er was Thought and cannot be Expres't: Michael Palmer and Postmodern Allusion." Ninth Annual Conference on Linguistics and Literature, University of North Texas, Denton, February 1997.
    • Ramey, Lauri. 1995. "Blended Spaces in Thurber and Welty." Marian College Humanities Series, Marian, Wisconsin, February 1995.
    • Ramey, Martin . 2000. "Cognitive Blends and Pauline Metaphors in 1 Thessalonians." Proceedings of the 2000 World Congress on Religion, organized by the Society of Biblical Literature.
    • Ramey, Martin . 1997. "Eschatology and Ethics," chapter four of "The Problem Of The Body: The Conflict Between Soteriology and Ethics In Paul." Doctoral dissertation, Chicago Theological Seminary. Contains a discussion of blending in 1 Thessalonians.
    • Récanati, François . "Le présent épistolaire: une perspective cognitive." L'information grammaticale, 66, juin 1995, 38-45. Récanati applies the earliest work on blended spaces to problems of tense. He translates "blended space" as "espace mixte."
    • Robert, Adrian . 1998. "Blending in the interpretation of mathematical proofs." Discourse and Cognition.. Edited by Jean-Pierre Koenig. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) [distributed by Cambridge University Press].
    • Rohrer, Tim. "The embodiment of blending." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Sinding, Michael. 2002. "Assembling Spaces: the Conceptual Structure of Allegory." Style 36:3 (Fall 2002, Special Issue on Cognitive Approaches to Figurative Language), pages 503-523.
    • Slingerland, Edward. "Conceptual Blending, Somatic Marking, and Normativity: A Case Example from Ancient China." Cognitive Linguistics 16.2 (2005): 557-584.
    • Sondergaard, Morten . "Blended Spaces in Contemporary Art." Beyond Babel: 18th Annual Conference of the Western Humanities Alliance. San Diego, October 1999.
    • Sovran, Tamar. "Generic Level Versus Creativity in Metaphorical Blends." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Steen, Francis. 1998. "Wordsworth's Autobiography of the Imagination." Forthcoming in Auto/Biography Studies, Spring. Includes a discussion of blending in, e.g., memory, perception, dreaming, and pretend play, and consequences for literary invention.
    • Sun, Douglas . 1994. "Thurber's Fables for our Time: A Case Study in Satirical Use of the Great Chain Metaphor." Studies in American Humor, new series volume 3, number 1 (1994), pages 51-61.
    • Swan, Deanne and Alan Cienki. "Constructions, Blending, and Metaphors: The Influence of Structure." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Sweetser, Eve. 2006. Whose Rhyme is Whose Reason? Sound and Sense in Cyrano de Bergerac. Language and Literature 15(1): 29-54.
    • Sweetser, Eve. 1999. "Compositionality and blending: semantic composition in a cognitively realistic framework" in Janssen, Theo and Gisela Redeker, editors. Cognitive Linguistics: Foundations, Scope, and Methodology. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pages 129-162.
    • Sweetser, Eve. "Subjectivity and Viewpoint as Blended Spaces." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Sweetser, Eve . 1997. "Mental Spaces and Cognitive Linguistics: A Cognitively Realistic Approach to Compositionality." Fifth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. 1997. [Discusses conceptual blending in adjective-noun combinations, e.g., "red pencil" and "likely candidate."]
    • Sweetser, Eve and Barbara Dancygier. "Semantic overlap and space-blending." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July 1999.
    • Tenuta de Azevedo, Adriana Maria. 2006. Estrutura Narrativa & Espaços Mentais. Belo Horizonte: Faculdade de Letras da UFMG.
    • Teuscher, Christof. Amorphous Membrane Blending: Novel and unconventional biologically-inspired computing machines. Ph.D. dissertation, Logic Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. 2003.
    • Thagard, Paul & Stewart, Terrence C. 2011. The AHA! Experience: Creativity Through Emergent Binding in Neural Networks. Cognitive Science 35, 1, 1-33. ["Our account of creativity as based on representation combination is similar to the idea of blending (conceptual integration) developed by Fauconnier and Turner (2002), which is modeled computationally by Pereira (2007). Our account differs in providing a neural mechanism for combining multimodal representations, including emotional reactions."]
    • Tobin, Vera. "Texts that pretend to be talk: Frame-shifting and frame-blending across frames of utterance in Mystery Science Theater 3000." 7th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, July 2001.
    • Turner, Mark. 2008. "Frame Blending." In Frames, Corpora, and Knowledge Representation, edited by Rema Rossini Favretti. Bologna: Bononia University Press. 13-32. CSN version.
    • Turner, Mark. 2007. "Conceptual Integration" in The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics. Edited by Dirk Geeraerts and Hubert Cuyckens. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
    • Turner, Mark. 2008. "The Way We Imagine." In Ilona Roth, editor, Imaginative Minds. Proceedings of the British Academy. London: Oxford University Press & the British Academy. Pdf of draft.
    • Turner, Mark. 2002. "The Cognitive Study of Art, Language, and Literature." Poetics Today. 23:1, pages 9-20.
    • Turner, Mark. "Forbidden Fruit." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Turner, Mark . 1999. "Forging Connections." Computation for Metaphor, Analogy, and Agents. Edited by Chrystopher Nehaniv. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pages 11-26. A volume in the series Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence.
    • Turner. 2000. "Backstage Cognition in Reason and Choice." In Arthur Lupia, Mathew McCubbins, and Samuel L. Popkin, editors, Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pages 264-286.
    • Turner, Mark . 1996. "Conceptual Blending and Counterfactual Argument in the Social and Behavioral Sciences," in Philip Tetlock and Aaron Belkin, editors, Counterfactual Thought Experiments in World Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. pages 291-295.
    • Turner, Mark and Gilles Fauconnier . 1999. "A Mechanism of Creativity." Poetics Today. Volume 20, number 3, pages 397-418. Reprinted as "Life on Mars: Language and the Instruments of Invention." In The Workings of Language, edited by Rebecca Wheeler. Praeger, 1999. Pages 181-200. CSN version.
    • Turner and Fauconnier. 1999. "Miscele e metafore." Pluriverso: Biblioteca delle idee per la civiltà planetaria 3:3 (September 1999), 92-106. [Translation by Anna Maria Thornton.]
    • Turner and Fauconnier. 1998. "Conceptual Integration in counterfactuals." Discourse and Cognition. Edited by Jean-Pierre Koenig. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), 285-296 [distributed by Cambridge University Press].
    • Turner and Fauconnier. 2000. "Metaphor, Metonymy, and Binding." In Metonymy and Metaphor at the Crossroads. Edited by Antonio Barcelona. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Pages 133-145. A volume in the series Topics in English Linguistics.
    • Turner and Fauconnier. 1995. "Conceptual Integration and Formal Expression." Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 10:3, 183-203.
    • Veale, Tony. 1999. "Pragmatic Forces in Metaphor Use: The Mechanics of Blend Recruitment in Visual Metaphors." In Computation for Metaphor, Analogy, and Agents. Edited by Chrystopher Nehaniv. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pages 37-51. A volume in the series Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence.
    • Veale, Tony . 1996 manuscript. Pastiche: A Metaphor-centred Computational Model of Conceptual Blending, with special reference to Cinematic Borrowing.
    • Veale, Tony and Diarmuid O'Donogue. 1999. "Computational Models of Conceptual Integration." Sixth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Stockholm, July.
    • Vorobyova, Olga. "Conceptual blending in narrative suspense: Making the pain of anxiety sweet." 7th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, July 2001.
    • Worth, Aaron. “’Thinketh: Browning and Other Minds,” Victorian Poetry 50:2, pp.127-146 (Summer 2012) http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_poetry/v050/50.2.worth.html
    • Zbikowski, Lawrence.
      (Web page: http://humanities.uchicago.edu/faculty/zbikowski/)
      1997. "Conceptual blending and song." Manuscript.
      1999. "The blossoms of 'Trockne Blumen': Music and text in the early nineteenth century," Music Analysis 18/3 (October 1999): 307-345.
      Zbikowski offers a seminar on conceptual mapping and blending in song and a related seminar on conceptual blending in language, music, and song.

    • Zunshine, Lisa. Domain Specificity and Conceptual Blending in A.L. Barbauld's Hymns

    Materials accompanying some talks by Fauconnier or Turner

    LSA Summer Institute, Berkeley, July 2009.